The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fulvic acid (FA) and ferric hydroxide on the Fe2+ and Mn2+ removal by oxidation and aerated/submerged membrane systems. Firstly, the oxidation kinetics of Fe2+ and Mn2+ in the presence of FA and ferric hydroxide are discussed and then contribution of the oxidation step on membrane experiments are determined. All experiments are conducted with synthetic drinking water and the concentration of contaminants is determined by characterization of two different drinking water sources in the city of Istanbul: Ömerli Dam Lake and Danamandıra Village Groundwater. The addition of ferric hydroxide helps mitigation of fouling and enhancing the rejection of Mn2+ up to 90% by developing a secondary filtration layer on the membrane surface which has been considered as a challenge in the drinking water treatment plants.
- drinking water
- heavy metals
- iron and manganese removal
- First received 7 December 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 2 March 2017.
- © IWA Publishing 2017