The capital territory of Pakistan constitutes twin cities Islamabad & Rawalpindi. Islamabad is a capital city located at the foot of Margallah Hills whereas the Rawalpindi city lies in Potohar Plateau. Both cities are located in the semi-arid region of Pakistan where the residents meet their basic need of water through groundwater resources. Since last many years quantity and quality of groundwater in these cities are deteriorating very rapidly. In this study the foremost recharge source of these cities was identified using tritium and major ions chemistry and different physiochemical parameters were studied to find out the facts behind the quality deterioration of groundwater. Tritium values and chemical data suggested that aquifers located in territory of Islamabad mainly recharged by upland areas (Margalla Hills) that accounts for their low electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids contents. Higher sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) suggested an alteration in recharge patterns through soil compaction and cementation (by increase construction activity) that reduced the recharge inputs. High SAR also disturbs the recharge pattern and had disturbed the natural equilibrium of groundwater system and deteriorated the quality of water.
- chemical and tritium data
- groundwater quality
- recharge source
- First received 30 March 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 1 September 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016