A comprehensive indicator of water use efficiency (WUE) to promote the coordinated development between the socio-economic and environmental systems was developed. A comprehensive consideration of the social, economic and environmental benefits of water was taken in the evaluation index system of WUE and the projection pursuit model combined with the chaotic particle swarm optimization was adopted to calculate the comprehensive indicator of WUE. The Huai River basin (HRB) was selected as a case study area. The temporal change of WUE showed that the annual WUE of the HRB from 2007 to 2013 increased obviously because of the enhanced emphasis on the environmental protection by the government. The spatial results showed that the spatial WUE of each province in 2013 was significantly higher than that in 2007. In 2013, Anhui with the lowest WUE was selected as a representative to reveal the problems of water use of the HRB. The main reasons were that the government paid more attention on the high water consumption industries and ignored the small scale water users, and the wastewater treatment was still weak in HRB. The research can provide the foundation for improving WUE and solving the problem of water shortages.
- chaotic particle swarm optimization
- evaluation index system
- projection pursuit model
- temporal and spatial changes
- water management
- First received 14 January 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 25 July 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016