Seawater intrusion is considered one of the main processes that degrade water quality by raising salinity. Over-pumping and decreasing recharge are considered the main causes of saltwater intrusion. Moreover, climate change and sea level rise accelerates saltwater intrusion. In this paper SEAWAT code was used to study groundwater flow and seawater intrusion in the Eastern Nile Delta aquifer considering four scenarios of climate change including; sea level rise, increasing abstraction, decreasing recharge and combination of these scenarios. The results showed that decreasing recharge has a significant effect on seawater intrusion. However, the combinations of these scenarios resulted in harmful intrusion and loss of groundwater. The soil salinity increased which decreased the agricultural production. The control of seawater intrusion and protection of groundwater resources and soil is very important. Different scenarios were implemented to protect the aquifer from seawater intrusion including; decreasing abstraction, increasing recharge, abstracting brackish water and combination of the three scenarios. The abstraction of brackish water gave higher reduction of seawater intrusion and decreased groundwater table in the aquifer near the shore line which protected the soil from salinity and increased the agricultural production. However, the combination of these three scenarios gave the highest reduction of seawater intrusion.
- climate change
- sea level rise
- seawater intrusion
- First received 27 January 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 25 July 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016