A simple and inexpensive water purification method was developed using natural coagulant (moringa seed powder) and antibacterial agents (scallop powder) followed by bio-sand filtration. In this study, surface water from different sources (e.g. pond, canal, lake and river) were treated with combined moringa seed powder, and scallop powder (MOSP) at a ratio of 2:1 for 10 minutes showed a clear water layer at the top and a sediment layer at the bottom. The clear water was then passed through an 8-fold sari cloth and/or natural bio-sand filtration and the resulting water was found drinkable. The microbiological and physico-chemical quality of this water showed non-significant differences compared to the US EPA drinking water quality parameters. Moreover, no cytotoxic effect of MOSP with BHK-21 and HeLa cells, nor any bacterial endotoxins was observed indicating use of MOSP does not pose any adverse health effect. Furthermore, the quality of six months stored water at room temperature was found acceptable, indicating the usefulness of this technology for drinking water purpose. On the other hand, the sediment or sludge produced in this process could be used in agriculture fields after proper compost. Therefore, this simple, inexpensive and ecofriendly methods could be used in drinking water scarcity areas of the world.
- inexpensive water purification
- moringa seed powder
- scallop powder
- surface water
- First received 11 February 2016.
- Accepted in revised form 13 June 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016