Pipe flow mixing with various solute concentrations and flow rates at pipe junctions is investigated. The degree of mixing affects contaminant spread in a water distribution system, and many studies have focused on mixing at the cross junctions; however, only a few have focused on double-Tee junctions of unequal pipe diameters. To investigate the solute mixing at such junctions, a series of experiments was conducted in a turbulent regime (Re = 12,500–50,000) with different Reynolds number ratios and connecting pipe lengths. Dimensionless outlet concentrations were found to depend on mixing mechanism at the impinging interface of junctions, where junctions with a larger pipe diameter ratio were associated with more complete mixing. Further, the inlet Reynolds number ratio affected mixing more strongly than the outlet Reynolds number ratio. Finally, the dimensionless connecting pipe length in a double-Tee played an important and complicated role in the flow mixing. The results were used to develop two-dimensional isopleth maps for the calculation of normalized north outlet concentrations.
- double-Tee junctions
- solute mixing
- unequal pipe sizes
- water distribution systems
- First received 24 December 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 18 April 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016