Spatiotemporal distributions of water consumption for various land use-cover types over the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia were estimated using Surface Energy Balance Algorithm. Water consumption of various land use and cover classes show similar seasonal dynamic trends. The spatial distribution of annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) shows low values in in the Empty Quarter (231–438 mm/yr), and moderate values in the Eastern Province borders (439–731 mm/yr). Very high AET values were observed in irrigated croplands in the Northern plains, Hafar Al-Batin, the central coastal lowlands, and the southern coastal lowlands, where annual AET ranged from 732–1,790 mm/yr, representing the majority of the study area agricultural land. Evaporative behavior of land use-cover types indicated that irrigated cropland which occupies 0.37% of the study area have an average daily AET ranges from 9.2 mm/day in January and a maximum value in April (30 mm/day). Average annual water use by irrigated cropland is relatively very high and it is roughly 1,786.9 mm/yr. While, water bodies, which covers 0.023% (121.2 km2) of the study area, also had relatively high mean AET (660.8 mm/yr). Overall, AET rates for irrigated cropland are much higher than for other land uses.
- arid-semiarid regions
- land uses-cover
- surface energy balance algorithm
- water consumption
- water resource management
- First received 22 December 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 20 April 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016