Results showed that 75% of the analyzed samples in drinking water network were positive for fungi, into a range of 1–3,000 CFU/mL. Identification resulted in 9 species of fungi and 4 species of yeasts: Bjerkandera, Penicillium, Paraconiothyrium, Paecilomyces, Debaryomyces, Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus. Although yeasts showed higher traceability than filamentous fungi, the fungal genus Penicillium had relevance by both traceability (6 species) and by its role in mycotoxins generation. From VOC mycotoxins extracts analysis from P. ochrochloron and P Purpurogenum water – M9 culture, six groups were identified: phenols, alcohols, alkenes, monoterpenes, aldehydes and alkanes, being phenols the predominant group (2,4-bis (1,1-dimethyl) phenol 40–88%). P. ochrochloron water culture and M9 culture, reported signals of toxicity: the first one as genotoxic for 0.5 y 1 mg/mL mycotoxin extract and the second one as cytotoxic. M9 media promoted a higher number of compounds in both species and a decrease in phenols predominance in P. ochrochloron but not in P. Purpurogenum. Results showed Penicillium and Debaryomyces as prevalent filamentous fungi and yeast in assessed networks, suggesting that those could be indicators of fungi and yeast presence in drinking water systems.
- drinking water
- First received 30 October 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 9 February 2016.
- © IWA Publishing 2016