Flocculation using modified clays is a technique widely applied in the management of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) modified clay is efficient flocculating agent in HABs control; however its effectiveness in black bloom management is still largely unknown. In the present study, PAC-modified clay was used to flocculate the black bloom under simulated flows. The deposition, resuspension of the black matter/clay flocs and the impact on the spread of quartz sand to the flocs were quantitatively studied. The results showed that the dosage of 1.8 g/L PAC-modified clay (0.8 g/L PAC and 1 g/L diatomite) could reduce turbidity by more than 90% in 1 h. The resuspension of flocs could be generated by a threshold bed shear stress of 0.045 N/m2. Addition of quartz sand inhibited the resuspension of flocs. We suggest that quartz sand can be used to effectively inhibit floc resuspension caused by waves and flow currents as the subsequent treatment of black bloom flocculation in Lake Taihu.
- black bloom
- modified clay
- polyaluminum chloride
- simulated flow experiments
- First received 7 January 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 4 August 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2015