Iron release from scale brought about serious problems such as noticeable increases in turbidity and colour of the water in distribution system and taps. Field study and bench scale experiment on iron release from corrosion scale were carried out. In old cast iron pipe, higher iron release occurred with lower chlorine residual concentration, while lower iron release occurred with higher chlorine residual concentration. The reason lay in the structure of scale and the electro-chemical reactions occurring on the scale and in the bulk. The passivated-out-layer of scale was formed by ferric oxide. It could be broken down by reductive reaction in an atmosphere of low chlorine residual concentration. In contrast, the situation was quite different with new cast iron pipe, the age of which was only half a year. Iron release was considered as the product of the iron matrix and chlorine since the passivated-out-layer of scale had not formed yet. This iron release was consistent with chlorine residual concentration. It is suggested that maintaining a high chlorine residual concentration in a drinking water distribution system is beneficial to controlling both microorganism' regrowth and iron release.
- chemical stability
- corrosion scale
- drinking water distribution system
- iron release
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