Optimization for operation of drinking water treatment plants should focus on water quality and not on environmental impact or costs. Using improvement of water quality as objective for optimization can lead to new views on operation, design and concept of drinking water treatment plants. This is illustrated for ozonation in combination with biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration at drinking water treatment plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet, the water cycle company for Amsterdam and surrounding areas. The water quality parameters that are taken into account are assimilable organic carbon (AOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pathogens. The operational parameters that are taken into account are the ozone dosage and the regeneration frequency of the BAC filters. It is concluded that ozone dosage and regeneration frequency should be reduced in combination with application of newly developed insights in design of ozone installations. It is also concluded that a new concept for Weesperkarspel with an additional ion exchange (IEX) step for natural organic matter (NOM) removal will contribute to the improvement of the disinfection capacity of ozonation and the biological stability of the produced drinking water.
- biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration
- life cycle assessment (LCA)
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