The flux decline in the UF membrane filtration of water pretreated by chemical coagulation using different initial mixing conditions were compared and the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the fouling of membranes was investigated. It was suggested that organic matter in the molecular weight ranges 300–2,000 and 20,000–40,000 Daltons were mainly responsible for the fouling. The fouling was greater for hydrophobic than hydrophilic membranes. ATR-FTIR analysis of the fouled hydrophobic membranes indicated that aliphatic amide and alcoholic compounds as well as polysaccharides contributed to significant membrane fouling. These adsorptive foulants are considered as neutral fractions present in hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM components. In the case of similar hydrophilic fractions, water precoagulated with a high hydrophobic content resulted in greater flux decline, which was presumed to be due to the organic matter with neutral properties contained within the hydrophobic fraction. The relative concentrations of each NOM fraction in coagulated water are important. Mechanical mixing for chemical coagulation, with a backmixing-type, rather than pump diffusion mixing, with an in-line type, is likely to be more effective at reducing the fouling caused by NOM.
- natural organic matter
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