Removal characteristics of particulates, natural organic matters, and microorganisms with six slow sand filter units were measured with a diameter of 50 mm and packed with sand to a depth of 50, 150, 300, 600, and two 700 mm, respectively. One of the 700 mm depth filters was amended by covering the surface of the filter bed with a prefilter. The raw water turbidity and pH was in the range of 1.5-2.0 NTU, and 7.0-7.7, respectively. Turbidity in each filter effluent was decreased as the depth of filter medium increased. However, a greater part of influent turbidity was removed within the top layer of the slow sand filters. Turbidity removal in the 700 mm depth filter with prefilter was similar to that without the prefilter, however, the removal of particles smaller than 2 mm was improved with the prefilter. The particles greater than 10 mm could be removed within the upper 50 mm depth in the slow sand filter. A greater fraction of the particles smaller than 2 mm was removed within the upper 50 mm, however, they were also removed in the deeper sand bed. The removal efficiency of DBP precursors represented by DOC and UV-254 absorbance was 9.2-31% and 2-31%, respectively. pH drop in the 50 mm depth filter was 0.12, while that in the 700 mm depth filter was 0.19. The effects of surface treatment with prefilter on UVA and DOC were not apparent.
- slow sand filtration
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