To evaluate the appropriateness of using algae as surrogate indices for the removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in conventional water treatment by rapid sand filtration, investigations on algal removal at eight water treatment plants and laboratory experiments using three species of algae and C. parvum oocysts were conducted. From the 5 years data collected from eight water treatment plants, the algal removal showed 0.63 - 1.83 log in coagulation and 1.66 - 4.17 log in sand filtration including coagulation. In jar tests, zeta potentials of flocs at an ALT ratio of 0.05 were -8.5 mV, -8.5 mV, -7.0 mV and -10.5 mV, and the removal rates at pH 7 were 2.05 log, 1.15 log, 1.51 log and 1.49-log for Microcystis viridis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Selenastrum capricornutum and C. parvum oocysts, respectively. In direct filtration tests, the removal rates of algae and C. parvum oocysts, except for M. aeruginosa, were around 3-log during the filtration time of 15-45 minutes when the best removal occurred. S. capricornutum, out of the three species of algae, showed almost the same coagulation characteristics as C. parvum oocysts and also behaved in a filtration pattern similar to C. parvum. From these results, algae were considered useful surrogate indices for the removal of C. parvum oocysts, and S. capricornutum was thought to be an appropriate one in rapid sand filtration.
- surrogate index
- © IWA Publishing 2002