During the past few years, intensive interest in the problem of excessive fluorides in drinking water is a matter of serious concern around the world, as it causes fluorosis, a disease that affects teeth and bones. In India, the states of Rajasthan, Gujarath and Andhra Pradesh have a large number of villages where ground water contains excessive fluorides. India is among the 23 nations around the globe where health problems occur due to the consumption of fluoride contaminated water. Considerable research has been carried out to remove fluoride from the drinking water to overcome its toxic effect. This paper provides a review of the scientific literature on the varied aspects of fluorine chemistry, its occurrence, distribution and use of low cost adsorbents. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to determine the fluoride removal efficiency of fly ash, brick powder, wood charcoal, animal charcoal, fish bone charcoal, etc. Based on the efficiency, economy and usage of various low cost adsorbents specified above, the fish bone charcoal showed a comparatively higher fluoride removal than other adsorbents used. So that the problem of heavy fluoride in the drinking water in various states of India can be efficiently solved. Hence the dream of the WHO can be turned into reality and thus reduce hospital loads by 90%.
- drinking water
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