The running time of slow sand filters in wastewater reuse is limited by the increase of pressure drop which is mainly caused by the surface filtration of suspended solids. Surface filtration mechanisms on the top of filter sand layer can be avoided e.g. by protection layers. Choosing suitable materials for protection layers a considerable extension of slow sand filter running times can be achieved.
- Permeable synthetic collectors
- protection layer
- slow sand filter
- wastewater reuse
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