A full-scale inside out hollow fibre membrane module was operated in a pilot-scale water treatment plant in Sweden for a period of 12 months from August 2013 to July 2014. Liquid chromatography– organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) chromatogram indicated the membranes could effectively remove 86% of dissolved organic carbon and 92% of humic substances from the feedwater. Routine cleaning-in-place was conducted to remove any fouling material accumulated on the membranes. Autopsy of the aged membrane samples after 12 months’ operation suggested no significant changes were detected for the membrane samples obtained from the top, middle and bottom sections of the membrane module and were similar to the virgin membrane sample.
- membrane autopsy
- natural organic matter (NOM) removal
- First received 19 August 2015.
- Accepted in revised form 9 November 2015.
- © IWA Publishing 2016