The design standards of the iron and manganese removal system by membrane filtration were investigated. The membrane filtration after pre-chlorination could remove iron completely and could remove around 70% of manganese. In the case of manganese concentration being more than 0.05 mg/l, the membrane filtration could remove them completely after the deposition in the oxidation tank. The concentrations of iron and manganese were reduced more than 90% by the oxidation tank and were reduced until under the detection limit after the membrane filtration. The economic comparisons between the rapid sand filtration system and this membrane filtration system in a small capacity and a middle capacity were investigated. The 15 years total costs of the membrane filtration system were estimated to be smaller than or around equal to the rapid sand filtration system in both capacities.
- Membrane filtration
- iron and manganese
- design standards, economic comparison
- © IWA Publishing 2001