UF has been found to exceed all current and anticipated future disinfection regulations regardless of the variations in resource quality. Thus, the application of UF technology has expanded considerably for drinking water treatment. Capital costs decreased by a factor of about 2.5 between 1989 and 1994. The standardization of the plants and the increase of membrane surface area per module allowed a lower manufacturing cost and therefore a higher production volume of the UF membrane modules. The optimized technology is now competitive as compared to conventional processes even for large scale plant capacities of 65,000 m3/day. The paper provides an overall overview on the UF process based on actual operating data from an O and M and capital cost perspective, but also tries to provide responses from an operator perspective by analysing long-term membrane process performances, including chemical cleaning requirements and membrane replacement frequency.
- full-scale plant
- © IWA Publishing 2001